Introduction#

In the document below you’ll find out how to:

  • use Oh My Zsh and Prezto,

  • manage completions,

  • use the Turbo mode,

  • use the ice-mods like as"program",

and much more.

Basic Plugin Loading#

zplugin load zdharma/history-search-multi-word
zplugin light zsh-users/zsh-syntax-highlighting

Above commands show two ways of basic plugin loading. load causes reporting to be enabled – you can track what plugin does, view the information with zplugin report {plugin-spec} and then also unload the plugin with zplugin unload {plugin-spec}. light is a significantly faster loading without tracking and reporting, by using which user resigns of the ability to view the plugin report and to unload it.

Note

In Turbo mode the slowdown caused by tracking is negligible.

Oh My Zsh, Prezto#

To load Oh My Zsh and Prezto plugins, use snippet feature. Snippets are single files downloaded by curl, wget, etc. (an automatic detection of the download tool is being performed) directly from URL. For example:

zplugin snippet 'https://github.com/robbyrussell/oh-my-zsh/raw/master/plugins/git/git.plugin.zsh'
zplugin snippet 'https://github.com/sorin-ionescu/prezto/blob/master/modules/helper/init.zsh'

Also, for Oh My Zsh and Prezto, you can use OMZ:: and PZT:: shorthands:

zplugin snippet OMZ::plugins/git/git.plugin.zsh
zplugin snippet PZT::modules/helper/init.zsh

Moreover, snippets support Subversion protocol, supported also by Github. This allows to load snippets that are multi-file (for example a Prezto module can consist of two or more files, e.g. init.zsh and alias.zsh). Default files that will be sourced are: *.plugin.zsh, init.zsh, *.zsh-theme:

# URL points to directory
zplugin ice svn
zplugin snippet PZT::modules/docker

Snippets and Performance#

Using curl, wget, etc. along with Subversion allows to almost completely avoid code dedicated to Oh My Zsh and Prezto, and also to other frameworks. This gives profits in performance of Zplugin, it is really fast and also compact (causing low memory footprint and short loading time).

Some Ice-Modifiers#

The command zplugin ice provides Ice-modifiers for single next command (see the README subsection ice-modifiers). The logic is that "ice" is something something that’s added (e.g. to a drink or a coffee) – and in the Zplugin sense this means that ice is a modifier added to the next Zplugin command, and also something that melts (so it doesn’t last long) – and in the Zplugin use it means that the modifier lasts for only single next Zplugin command. Using one other Ice-modifier "pick" user can explicitly select the file to source:

zplugin ice svn pick"init.zsh"
zplugin snippet PZT::modules/git

Content of Ice-modifier is simply put into "…", '…', or $'…'. No need for ":" after Ice-mod name (although it's allowed, so as the equal sign =, so e.g. pick="init.zsh" or pick=init.zsh are being correctly recognized) . This way editors like vim and emacs and also zsh-users/zsh-syntax-highlighting and zdharma/fast-syntax-highlighting will highlight contents of Ice-modifiers.

as"program"#

A plugin might not be a file for sourcing, but a command to be added to $PATH. To obtain this effect, use Ice-modifier as with value program (or an alias value command).

zplugin ice as"program" cp"httpstat.sh -> httpstat" pick"httpstat"
zplugin light b4b4r07/httpstat

Above command will add plugin directory to $PATH, copy file httpstat.sh into httpstat and add execution rights (+x) to the file selected with pick, i.e. to httpstat. Other Ice-mod exists, mv, which works like cp but moves a file instead of copying it. mv is ran before cp.

Note

The cp and mv ices (and also as some other ones, like atclone) are being run when the plugin or snippet is being installed. To test them again first delete the plugin or snippet by zplugin delete PZT::modules/osx (for example).

atpull"…"#

Copying file is safe for doing later updates – original files of repository are unmodified and Git will report no conflicts. However, mv also can be used, if a proper atpull (an Ice–modifier ran at update of plugin) will be used:

zplugin ice as"program" mv"httpstat.sh -> httpstat" \
      pick"httpstat" atpull'!git reset --hard'
zplugin light b4b4r07/httpstat

If atpull starts with exclamation mark, then it will be run before git pull, and before mv. Nevertheless, atpull, mv, cp are ran only if new commits are to be fetched. So in summary, when user runs zplugin update b4b4r07/httpstat to update this plugin, and there are new commits, what happens first is that git reset --hard is ran – and it restores original httpstat.sh, then git pull is ran and it downloads new commits (doing fast-forward), then mv is ran again so that the command is httpstat not httpstat.sh. This way the mv ice can be used to induce a permanent changes into the plugin's contents without blocking the ability to update it with git (or with subversion in case of snippets, more on this below at **).

Note

For exclamation mark to not be expanded by Zsh in interactive session, use '…' not "…" to enclose contents of atpull Ice-mod.

Snippets-Commands#

Commands can also be added to $PATH using snippets. For example:

zplugin ice mv"httpstat.sh -> httpstat" \
        pick"httpstat" as"program"
zplugin snippet \
    https://github.com/b4b4r07/httpstat/blob/master/httpstat.sh

(**) Snippets also support atpull Ice-mod, so it’s possible to do e.g. atpull'!svn revert'. There’s also atinit Ice-mod, executed before each loading of plugin or snippet.

Snippets-Completions#

By using the as'' ice-mod with value completion you can point the snippet subcommand directly to a completion file, e.g.:

zplugin ice as"completion"
zplugin snippet https://github.com/docker/cli/blob/master/contrib/completion/zsh/_docker

Completion Management#

Zplugin allows to disable and enable each completion in every plugin. Try installing a popular plugin that provides completions:

zplugin ice blockf
zplugin light zsh-users/zsh-completions

First command (the blockf ice) will block the traditional method of adding completions. Zplugin uses own method (based on symlinks instead of adding a number of directories to $fpath). Zplugin will automatically install completions of a newly downloaded plugin. To uninstall the completions and install them again, you would use:

zplugin cuninstall zsh-users/zsh-completions   # uninstall
zplugin creinstall zsh-users/zsh-completions   # install

Listing Completions#

Note

zplg is an alias that can be used in interactive sessions.

To see what completions all plugins provide, in tabular formatting and with name of each plugin, use:

zplg clist

This command is specially adapted for plugins like zsh-users/zsh-completions, which provide many completions – listing will have 3 completions per line (so that a smaller number of terminal pages will be occupied) like this:

...
atach, bitcoin-cli, bower    zsh-users/zsh-completions
bundle, caffeinate, cap      zsh-users/zsh-completions
cask, cf, chattr             zsh-users/zsh-completions
...

You can show more completions per line by providing an argument to clist, e.g. zplg clist 6, will show:

...
bundle, caffeinate, cap, cask, cf, chattr      zsh-users/zsh-completions
cheat, choc, cmake, coffee, column, composer   zsh-users/zsh-completions
console, dad, debuild, dget, dhcpcd, diana     zsh-users/zsh-completions
...

Enabling and Disabling Completions#

Completions can be disabled, so that e.g. original Zsh completion will be used. The commands are very basic, they only need completion name:

$ zplg cdisable cmake
Disabled cmake completion belonging to zsh-users/zsh-completions
$ zplg cenable cmake
Enabled cmake completion belonging to zsh-users/zsh-completions

That’s all on completions. There’s one more command, zplugin csearch, that will search all plugin directories for available completions, and show if they are installed:

#csearch screenshot

This sums up to complete control over completions.

Subversion for Subdirectories#

In general, to use subdirectories of Github projects as snippets add /trunk/{path-to-dir} to URL, for example:

zplugin ice svn
zplugin snippet https://github.com/zsh-users/zsh-completions/trunk/src

# For Oh My Zsh and Prezto, the OMZ:: and PZT:: prefixes work
# without the need to add the `/trunk/` infix (however the path
# should point to a directory, not to a file):
zplugin ice svn; zplugin snippet PZT::modules/docker

Snippets too have completions installed by default, like plugins.

Turbo Mode (Zsh >= 5.3)#

The Ice-mod wait allows you to postpone loading of a plugin to the moment when processing of .zshrc is finished and prompt is being shown. It is like Windows – during startup, it shows desktop even though it still loads data in background. This has drawbacks, but is for sure better than blank screen for 10 minutes. And here, in Zplugin, there are no drawbacks of this approach – no lags, freezes, etc. – the command line is fully usable while the plugins are being loaded, for number of such plugins like 10 or 20.

Note

Turbo mode will speed up Zsh startup by 50%–73%. For example instead of 200 ms, it'll be 50 ms (!)

Zsh 5.3 or greater is required. To use this Turbo mode add wait ice to the target plugin in one of following ways:

PS1="READY > "
zplugin ice wait'!0' 
zplugin load halfo/lambda-mod-zsh-theme

This sets plugin psprint/zprompts to be loaded 0 seconds after zshrc. It will fire up after c.a. 1 ms of showing of the basic prompt READY >. I’ve started to use this method of setting up a prompt 2 years ago now and I run it without any problems. It is also sufficient to provide just the word wait, it’ll work like wait'0' (and wait'!' like wait'!0').

The exclamation mark causes Zplugin to reset-prompt after loading plugin, so it is needed for themes. The same with Prezto prompts, with a longer delay:

zplg ice svn silent wait'!1' atload'prompt smiley'
zplg snippet PZT::modules/prompt

Using zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions without any drawbacks:

zplugin ice wait lucid atload'_zsh_autosuggest_start'
zplugin light zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions

Explanation: Autosuggestions uses precmd hook, which is being called right after processing zshrc (right before the first prompt). Turbo mode will wait 1 second after that, so precmd will not be installed and thus not called at that first prompt. This makes autosuggestions inactive at the first prompt. However the given atload Ice-mod fixes this, it calls the same function that precmd would, right after loading autosuggestions, resulting in exactly the same behavior of the plugin.

The ice lucid causes the under-prompt message saying Loaded zsh-users/zsh-autosuggestions that normally appears for every Turbo-loaded plugin to not show.

Turbo-Loading Sophisticated Prompts#

For some, mostly advanced themes the initialization of the prompt is being done in a precmd-hook, i.e.; in a function that's gets called before each prompt. The hook is installed by the add-zsh-hook Zsh function by adding its name to the $precmd_functions array.

To make the prompt fully initialized after Turbo loading in the middle of the prompt (the same situation as with the zsh-autosuggestions plugin), the hook should be called from atload'' ice.

First, find the name of the hook function by examining the $precmd_functions array. For example, for robobenklein/zinc theme, they'll be two functions: prompt_zinc_setup and prompt_zinc_precmd:

root@sg > ~ > print $precmd_functions                       < ✔ < 22:21:33
_zsh_autosuggest_start prompt_zinc_setup prompt_zinc_precmd

Then, add them to the ice-list in the atload'' ice:

zplugin ice wait'!' lucid nocd \
    atload'!prompt_zinc_setup; prompt_zinc_precmd'
zplugin load robobenklein/zinc

The exclamation mark in atload'!…' is to track the functions allowing the plugin to be unloaded, as described here. It might be useful for the multi-prompt setup described next.

Automatic Load/Unload on Condition#

Ices load and unload allow to define when you want plugins active or unactive. For example:

# Load when in ~/tmp

zplugin ice load'![[ $PWD = */tmp* ]]' unload'![[ $PWD != */tmp* ]]' \
    atload"!promptinit; prompt sprint3"
zplugin load psprint/zprompts

# Load when NOT in ~/tmp

zplugin ice load'![[ $PWD != */tmp* ]]' unload'![[ $PWD = */tmp* ]]'
zplugin load russjohnson/angry-fly-zsh

Two prompts, each active in different directories. This technique can be used to have plugin-sets, e.g. by defining parameter $PLUGINS with possible values like cpp, web, admin and by setting load / unload conditions to activate different plugins on cpp, on web, etc.

Note

The difference with wait is that load / unload are constantly active, not only till first activation.

Note that for unloading of a plugin to work the plugin needs to be loaded with tracking (so zplugin load …, not zplugin light …). Tracking causes slight slowdown, however this doesn’t influence Zsh startup time when using Turbo mode.

See also Wiki on multiple prompts. It contains a more real-world examples of a multi-prompt setup, which is being close to what the author uses in own setup.